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CLIENT SERVER COMPUTING
1. What is meant by client server computing?
Clients and Servers are separate logical entities that work together over a network to accomplish a task.
2. List the types of client server?
- File servers
- Database servers
- Transaction servers
- Groupware servers
- Object servers
- Web servers
3. What is file server?
- With the file server, the client passes request for file records over a network to the file server.
- File servers are useful for sharing files across a network.
- They are indispensable for creating shared repositories of documents, images engineering drawings and other large data objects.
4. What is database server?
- With a database server, the client passes SQL requests as messages to the database server and the server find the requested data and the result is sent back to the client over the network.
- The results of each SQL command are returned over the network.
5. Define groupware server?
- Groupware is software that supports the creation, flow and tracking of non structured information in direct support of collaborative group activity.
- It addresses the management of semi-structured information such as text, image, bulletin boards and the flow of work.
- These client/server systems place people in direct contact with other people.
6. What is a transaction server?
- The client invokes remote procedures that reside on the server with an SQL database engine.
- These remote procedures on the server execute a group of SQL statements.
- These grouped SQL statements are called Transactions.
- It is simple request/reply message over the network.
7. Define object server.
- The client/server application is written as a set of communicating objects.
- Client objects communicate with server objects using an ORB (object Request Broker).
- The client invokes a method on a remote object.
- The ORB locates an instance of that object server class, invokes the requested method, and returns the results to the client object.
8. What is a web server?
- The client and servers communicate using an RPC like protocol called HTTP.
- This protocol defines a set of commands; parameters are passed as strings, with no provision for typed data.
9. Differentiate between two tier and three tier client/server architectures.
- In 2 tier C/S systems, the application logic is either inside the user interface on the client or within the database on the server or both.
- In 3 tier C/S systems, the application logic lives in the middle tier and it is separated from the data and the user interface
10. Differentiate between fat server and the fat client.
- In fat server, applications are easier to manage and deploy on the network because most of the code runs on the servers.
- It tries to minimize network interchanges by creating more abstract levels of service.
- In fat client, the bulk of the application runs on the client side.
- It is used for decision support and personal software and the provide flexibility and opportunities for creating front end tools to create their own applications.
11. List out the characteristics of client server computing.
- Shared resources
- Asymmetrical protocols
- Transparency of location
- Mix and match
- Message based exchanges
- Encapsulation of services
12. Define Intergalactic client/server.
The center of gravity is shifting from single server, 2-tier, LAN based departmental client/server to a post scarcity form of client/server where every machine on the global information highway can be both a client and a server.
13. List out the technologies is needed in the Intergalactic client/server.
- Rich transaction processing
- Roaming agents
- Rich data management
- Intelligent self managing entities
- Intelligent middleware
14. List out the 4 situations used for building blocks arrangement
- C/S for tiny shops and nomadic tribes
- C/S for small shops and departments
- C/S for intergalactic enterprises
- C/S for a post-scarcity world
1. What is meant by real client server? Explain the types of real client server.
2. What is meant by intergelatic client server? Explain.
3. Briefly explain about client server building blocks.
- List out the typical server program requirements
- Waits for client-initiated requests
- Executes many requests at the same time
- Takes care of VIP clients first
- Initiates and runs background task activity
- Keeps running
- Grows bigger and fatter
- List out the server OS requirements.
- Task preemption
- Task priority
- Local/Remote IPC
- Intertask protection
- Multi-user high performance files system
- Efficient memory management
- Dynamically linked run time extensions
An OS must provide synchronization mechanisms for keeping concurrent tasks from bumping into one another when accessing shared resources.
- Define IPC
An OS must provide the mechanisms that allow independent processes to exchange and share data.
- Define threads
These are units of concurrency provided within the program itself. These are used to create concurrent, event-driven server programs.
- Define intertask protection
The OS must protect tasks from interfering with each other’s resources. Protection also extends to the file system and calls to the OS.
- Define MHPF(Multi-user High performance file system)
- Define dynamic linked runtime extension
- The file system must support multiple tasks and provide the locks that protect the integrity of the data.
- Server programs work on the many files at the same time.
- The file system must support large number of open files without too much deterioration in performance.
The OS services should be extendable. A mechanism must be provided to allow services to grow at run time without recompiling the OS
- Describe network time
- The OS extensions must provide a mechanism for clients and servers to synchronize their clocks.
- This time should be coordinated with some universal time authority.
- What is meant by BLOBs?
- Images, video, graphics, intelligent documents and database snapshots are to test the capabilities of our OS, databases and networks.
- These large objects require Os extensions such as intelligent message streams and object representation formats.
- What is meant by NOS extension?
The OS extensions must provide facilities for extending the file and print services over the network.
- Differentiate between authentication and authorization.
- The authentication is defined as the clients to prove to the server that they are who they claim to be.
- The authorization system determines if the authenticated client has the permission to obtain a remote service.
- Differentiate between the Asymmetric multiprocessing and Symmetric multi processing.
- In Asymmetric multiprocessing, the master can run the OS at any one time.
- The master controls slave processors dedicated to specific function such as disk I/O or network I/O.
- The coprocessor has unique special purpose hardware that is not identical to the main processor.
- In Symmetric multiprocessing, treats all processors as equals.
- Any processor can do the work of any other processor.
- List out extended services server programs from their OS.
- Ubiquitous communications
- Network operating system extensions
- Binary Large Objects (BLOBs)
- Global directories and Network yellow pages
- Authentication and Authorization services
- System management
- Network time
- Database and transaction services
- Internet services
- Object-oriented services
15. List out the types of clients in Client Anatomy.
- Non GUI clients
- GUI clients
- OOUI clients
16. Define shippable places.
It is mobile container of components. It is a place that can be shipped over the Net
1. Explain in detail about server anatomy.
2. Explain in detail about extended and base services of server programs
Explain server need from an OS?
3. Explain in detail about the Client Anatomy.
4. Write brief notes on client need from an OS
5. Write short notes on:
- Netware 4.1
- OS/2 Warp server
- MAC OS
1. What is meant by NOS middleware?
ü NOSs is a collection of independent workstations able to communicate via shared file systems to become real distributed computing environment that make the network transparent to users.
2. What is meant by replication?
3. Write down the type of synchronization
4. What is meant by skulking?
6. Describe encryption
7. Explain cryptographic checksum
8. What is meant by audit trails?
9. Explain authentication
10. Explain authorization
11. What is c2 level security?
12. What is meant by sockets?
13. Use of sockets
14. Peer to peer
15. Define global directory services.
17. Named pipes
18. MOM versus RPC
19 List out the types of transparency in NOS Middleware.
ü Location transparency
ü Namespace transparency
ü Logon transparency
ü Replication transparency
ü Local/remote access transparency
ü Distributed time transparency
ü Failure transparency
ü Administration transparency
1. Explain about NOS middleware
2. Explain about global directory services
3. Explain about distributed time services
4. Explain about distributed security services
5. Explain messaging and queueing MOM
6. Explain enterprise NOS
7. Explain internet as NOS
1. Define transaction
A transaction is a collection of actions imbued with ACID properties.
2. List out the Acid properties
I – Isolation
3. What is meant by flat transaction?
- Flat transactions are the work horses of the current generation of transactional systems.
- They are called flat because all the work done within a transaction’s boundaries is at the same level.
- The transaction has 2 delimiters a.)Begin- transaction
b.) commit transaction or abort transaction
4. Differentiate between baby stepping flat transaction and the distributed flat transaction
- In Baby Stepping flat transaction, the OLTP client/server programs are divided into short transactions that execute back to back to produce results.
- In distributed flat transaction, the transaction must travel across multiple sites to get to the resources it needs. Each site’s TP monitor must manage its local piece of the transaction.
5. List out the limitations of flat transaction
- Compound business transactions that need to be partially rolled back
- Business transactions with humans in the loop
- Business transactions that span long periods of time
- Business transactions with a lot of bulk
- Business transactions that span across companies or the internet
6. Differentiate between chained and nested transaction
- Chained transaction is a variation of sync points that make the accumulated work durable. I allows to commit work while staying within the transaction
- Nested transaction provides the ability to define transactions within othertransactions.here transactions are divided into sub transactions.
7. Differentiate between sync point and sagas
- Sync point lets you rollback work and still maintains a live transaction. It also gives better granularity of control over what you save and undo.
- Sagas lets you rollback the entire chain, if you require it.
8. Define TP monitor
- Jeri Edwards’s definition for TP monitor defines it as “an Operating system for transaction processing.
- When a transaction ends, the TP Monitor ensures that all the systems involved in the transaction are left in a consistent state.
9. Define load balancing in TP monitor
If the number of incoming client requests exceeds the number of processes in a server class, the TP Monitor may dynamically start new processes. This is called Load Balancing in TP monitor.
10. List out the types of TP monitor client/server interaction types
There are 4 types of TP monitor client/server interaction types as followsd
11. Differentiate between transactional and non transactional communication
- In transactional communication loosely-coupled client/server programs participate. This does not commit synchronization.
- In non transactional communication transitionally bound client/server and server/server programs participate. This will commit synchronization.
12. What is meant by TP LITE?
Some database centric needs that database transactions with stored procedures is all needed in the area of transaction management. This is called as TP Lite.
It is the integration of TP monitor functions in the database engines. Currently, only few of the TP monitor functions are integrated including function shipping, some level of funneling, single function transaction management and RPC like calls.
13. What is meant by TP HEAVY?
TP Monitors track the execution of functions on a single server or across servers on the network. This approach is called as TP Heavy.
In TP-Heavy , TP Monitor’s products for client/server LANs include CICS, Encia, Tuxedo, Tandem’s Pthway, top End, and Digital’s ACMS.
14. List out the functions includes in TP heavy
- Process Management
- Load balancing
- Global transaction synchronization
- Interfaces to multiple resources managers
- Error recovery
15. How to managing heterogeneous resources in TP lite vs. TP heavy?
- Stored procedure can only commit transaction resources that are on the vendor’s database or resource manager. It cannot synchronize or commit work that is on a foreign-local or non-local database or resource manager.
- TP-Heavy procedures can easily handle ACID updates on multiple heterogeneous resource managers within the scope of a single transaction.
1. Explain in detail about TP lite vs. TP heavy
2. Write short notes on:
- Why a server OS needs a TP monitor
- How the TP monitor performs ets functioning act
3. Explain in detail about the types of transaction
i.e., Flat transactions and Distributed flat transaction.
4. Explain in detail about the chained and nested transactions with neat sketch
1. Define sql
- SQL, an ISO standard is a powerful set-oriented language consisting of few commands.
- It was created as a language for databases that adhere to the relational model.
2. List out the important roles in sql
- It is an interactive query language for ad hoc database queries
- It is a database programming language
- It is a data definition and data administration language
- It is a language of networked database servers
- It helps to protect the data in a multi-user networked environment.
3. Differentiate between SQL 89 and SQL 92
- Sql-89 standard was an intersection of the Sql implementations of that time which made it easy for existing products to confirm it.
- Sql-92 standardizes many of the features previously left to the implementer’s discretion and is a superset of Sql-89.
4. List out the processes to develop SQL3
5. What is a stored procedure?
It is a named collection of SQL statements and procedural logic that is compiled verified and stored in the server database. It is typically treats like any other database object and registered in the SQL catalog.
6. Differentiate between stored procedure vs. static and dynamic sql
- In stored procedure features like shared and named functions are present. Procedural logic is within the object. Abstraction level is high.
- In static and dynamic SQL it do not have shared and named functions. Procedural logic is external. Abstraction level is low.
7. Define Triggers
These are special user-defined actions usually in the form of stored procedures that are automatically invoked by the server based on data-related events. It can perform complex actions and can use the full power of procedural language.
8. Define rules
A rule is a special type of trigger that is used to perform simple checks on data.
9. Define federated database system
To allow a “federation” of loosely coupled autonomously-owned, multivendor database servers to communicate using a “least common denominator” approach. This process is called as “Federated database system”.
10. List out the solution for single vendered middleware
- A vendor-proprietary SQL API that works on a multiplicity of client platforms.
- A vendor proprietary SQL driver.
- FAP support for multiple protocol stacks.
- Gateways to other vendor databases
- Client/Server database administration tools.
- Front-end graphical application development and query tools
11. List out the inconsistence that faced by multi vendor middleware.
- Different SQL APIs.
- Multiple database drivers
- Multiple FAPs and no interoperability
- Multiple administration tools
12. List out the DRDA features.
- SQL message content and exchange protocol
- Transport stack independence
- Multiplatform program preparation
- Static or dynamic SQL support
- Common diagnostics
- Common SQL syntax
13. List out the federated middleware solutions
- The common SQL interface
- The Open SQL gateway
- Federated Nirvana
14. Differentiate between Embedded sql and call level interface
- In embedded SQL (ESQL) is an ISO SQL-92 defined standard for embedding SQL as within ordinary programming languages.
- This approach requires running the SQL source through a precompiler to generate a source code file that the language compiler understands.
- In Call Level Interface (CLI) is an alternative method for ESQL which is to use a callable SQL API for database access.
- An API does not require a precompiler to convert SQL statements into code, which is then compiled and bound to a database.
15. List out the proprietary sql language
- Sybase Transact-SQL
- Oracle PL/SQL
16. Draw the EDA/SQL gateway components
- EDA/Data drivers
17. List out the four levels of database transactions defined by DRDA
- Remote request
- Remote unit of work
- Distributed unit of work
- Distributed request
18. Define DSS and EIS
DSS- Decision support Systems used to analyses data and create reports
They provide the business professional and information hounds with the means to obtain exactly the information that they need.
EIS-Executive Information System
These are more powerful, easy to use and business specific tool
19. What is meant by information hounds?
These are the “outsiders” who want to consume the information. The ability to access information and act on it will become increasingly critical to any company’s (Individual’s) success.
20. Define data warehouse
v Bill Inmon and Vendors like Teradata defines a warehouse as” a separate database for decision support,which contains vast amount of information”.
v Richard Hackathorn defines a warehouse as “a collection of data objects that have been inventoried for distribution to a business community”.
21. List out the elements of data warehousing
v The data replication manager
v The informational database
v The information directory
v EIS/DSS tool support
22. Define data marts
Data mart is a subset of an organizational data store, usually oriented to a specific purpose or major data subject that may be distributed to support business needs.
23. Differentiate between replication and direct access
- In replication, automated copy management or the management of replicated data is the technology for sharing data in a federated database environment.
- Data replication for decision support minimizes the disruption of production systems and allows the people to tailor the informational databases to fit for the needs.
- In direct access, it is required by applications that cannot tolerate any “volatility” in their data.
- These applications require “live data” that reflect the state of the business.
24. List the manual steps for processing data replication
ü Extract data using a query
ü Copy the result to the diskette file
ü Copy the diskette file to the machine with the spread sheet program and
ü Import the file into the local database
25. Differentiate between refresh and update
ü In refresh, replace the entire target with data from the source.
ü It is also used for doing initial bulk loads to the target database.
ü In updates, only sends the changed data to the target.
ü There are of 2 types of updates
- Synchronous: The target copy is updated in the same commit scope as the source table.
- Asynchronous: The target table is updated in separate transactions than the one updating the source.
26. List out the functions that apply on data extracts
ü Derived functions
27. Define true replicas
ü Replicas are copies of data that can update. When this happens, the updated replica must find a way to resynchronize its state with the original primary database.
ü Updates only takes place on a single designated replica and the primary server must obtain from doing any non- replica generated changes.
28. Differentiate between OLAP and OLTP
ü OLAP- Online Analytical Processing
ü It deals with the historical data in the data warehouses.
ü OLTP- Online Transaction Processing
ü It deals with the transactional updates of data in the database.
29. List out the OLAP tool vendors
ü Relational OLAP tools
ü OLAP savvy SQL servers
ü Multi dimensional DBMS
30. Define data mining
ü Data Mining is defined as the extracting data / knowledge from the database.
ü Data mining is the process of discovering unsuspected patterns from the data warehouse.
ü The tools used for data mining are
- Sequential patterns
31. Define personal information agents
ü Agents are mobile application that is launched on data warehouses to perform specific queries or to search for patterns in data.
ü Agents are rule based alerting programs that says “If this happened, do that”.
32. List out the search methods that the tools were used.
ü The tools used for data mining are
- Sequential patterns
33. Define group ware.
- Groupware is software that supports the creation, flow and tracking of non structured information in direct support of collaborative group activity.
34. List out the components of group ware
v Multimedia document management
v Conferencing and scheduling
35. Define work flow
ü Workflow is the “up and coming” client/Server technology that can be used to automatically route the events from one program to the next in structured/unstructured C/S environment
ü Workflow define s the operations that must be visited along the way and what needs to be done when exceptions occur.
36. List out the functions /key areas of new work flow system
ü Support for ad hoc user needs.
ü Low cost
ü Integration with other application
ü Programming with visual metaphor
ü Integration with email, MOM, or RPC
ü Provide facilities for tracking work- in- progress
ü Provide users with tool to complete an action
ü Provide APIs that let developers customize workflow services.
37. List out the 3rs in work flow model
38. Differentiate between process oriented and adhoc work flow
ü In process oriented workflows are used to automate business systems that have definable, repetitive, and well understood policies and procedures.
ü It is long lived transactions.
ü Eg: bank loan
ü In Adhoc work flow, deals with short lived and unstructured work processes.
ü They can involve task force of people working on a common problem
ü Eg: Short duration problem with deadline
39. List out the types of work flow routine
ü Sequential router
ü Parallel router
ü Feedback loop router
ü Circular router
ü Wheel- spoked router
ü Fully interconnected router
40. What is the purpose of using work splits and joints?
ü Workflow objects can go off on different routes and then merge back into a single route at a “rendezvous” point.
41. List out the types of splits and joints in work flow
43. List out the functions that are used in the mail API
ü Simple messaging service
ü Message store manipulation
ü Address book and directory service
ü Mail object manipulation
ü Authentication and security service
ü Service provider interface
44. List out the 3 standards used in Email API
ü Vendor Independent Messaging (VIM)
ü Messaging API (MAPI)
ü Common Mail Call (CMC)
45. Differentiate between VIM and MAPI
ü VIM is an interface that is jointly backed by Lotus, Apple IBM, Borland, MCI, Oracle, Word perfect and Novell.
ü Designed as a cross platform interface
ü It consists of 55 API calls in which 10 are optional that support mail, message store and address book services.
ü MAPI is Microsoft WOSA offered for Email.
ü It was the 1st window client API ie.,windows DLL that works with MS mail backends.
ü It consists of 12 API calls for support mail, message store and address book services.
ü Extended MAPI consists of 100 API calls for complex addressing services.
46. Define scheduling and calendaring
ü Scheduling and calendaring is an electronic scheduling of meeting, sharing calendaring, and”to do” the list and all that good stuff.
ü A work flow manager would be able to automatically add a meeting to the calendar of all the participations, scheduling a meeting room, and send them remainder notices
47. Define conferencing
ü It is an electronic meeting through which people can participate in the online.
48. List out the two types of conferencing
ü Real time conferencing
ü Any time conferencing (Explain it)
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